“The Future Is Fungal” – A New Era for Boreal Biodiversity

 Cold regions spanning Russia, northern Europe, and North America constitute a huge circumpolar ring across the world,,,

 and spruce, pine, fir, and other tree kinds predominate there.   

 These northernmost woodlands, the boreal forests, comprise the planet's most widespread terrestrial ecosystem.  

 Boral trees contain fungi within their photosynthetic, or light-eating, tissues,,,

 as well as within the abundant cloud-like lichens and fluffy mosses that cover the ground in between.  

 These fungi are endophytes, which means they coexist with plants, usually to each other's benefit. 

 According to Betsy Arnold, a professor in the School of Plant Sciences in the College of Agriculture,,,

 Life and Environmental Sciences and the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in the College of Science, who is also a member of the Bio5 Institute.

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